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Cell wall

Definition: The cell wall is an extracellular organelle that ensures stability and protection against external influences in plants, fungi and bacteria. Depending on the form of life, the main component of the cell wall varies considerably. In plants, the majority of cell walls are made of cellulose, mushrooms of chitin and bacteria of murein.
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15.3.1.1.1.1: Herpes Simplex 1 and 2 (HHV 1 and 2) - Biology

VirusGenetic material: double-stranded linear DNAVirion structure: Enveloped, icosahedral capsidReplicationDNA enters host nucleus and circularizesRemains separate from host genome as episomeAfter initial infection, viral DNA remains in ganglia near initial infection siteReplication of virus (and therefore disease) can recur, usually due to stress, immune suppression, other disease, or exposure to factors which can cause DNA damage, such as sunlight (UV)TransmissionTransmitted through close contact with infected individual, usually active lesionsHSV-2 (HHV-2) can be shed even when there are no active lesionsEpidemiologyAnyone is susceptible to infection, but HSV-2 (HHV-2) is typically sexually transmittedClinical DiseaseOral herpesalso called cold sores or fever blistersrecurrence of lesions is triggered by illness/stresspainful, itchy lesions on the lipsusually caused by HSV-1 (HHV-1)virus goes latent in trigeminal and brachial gangliaGenital herpespainful, itchy lesions in/on genitaliausually caused bby HSV-2 (HHV-2)virus goes latent in sacral gangliaNeonatal herpesinfection of infant during birth30 fatal if cutaneous or oral infection, 80 if CNS infectionto prevent, mother should be tested for HSV and give birth by Caesarean section if infectedWhitlowinfection of wound or cutmost at risk are healthcare workers who may come in contact with lesions or young children who suck their thumbTreatment and PreventionAntivirals such as acyclovir, valacyclovir or other nucleoside analogsPrevention of contact with active lesions (gloves, condoms)Caesarean delivery for infected womenAbstinence/monogamy
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