The Stone Age…
The term stone age describes the early epoch in the history of humanity, which began about 2.6 million years ago and lasted until the beginning of the Bronze Age in the fourth millennium BC. Thus, the Stone Age is also considered the longest section of human history. Science divides this epoch into three phases, namely the Paleolithic or the Paleolithic, the Mesolithic or the Mesolithic as well as the Neolithic or the Neolithic, The Paleolithic is considered by far the longest period of this epoch and did not go until about 8000 BC. In the Mesolithic over. The exact time limits vary depending on the regions, since the development of humans in the individual countries was different for climatic reasons.
The name of the Stone Age refers to the fact that people made stone tools for the first time in this era and used them specifically for hunting and preparing food.
The evolution of man in the Stone Age:
Overall, the development of our ancestors to modern humans took about three million years. During this time, the volume of the brain increased significantly. The stone age is characterized by many stages of development, which went through the man, by adapting himself and his way of life more and more to his environment. Stone Age development can be traced not only in the use of various techniques in hunting and the production of objects, but also in the constant changes in social coexistence, the choice of food and shelter and in creative work. The daily life of Stone Age man was significantly influenced by the flora and fauna of its immediate surroundings.
In the Stone Age, our ancestors evolved from a primitive hunter-gatherer to a sedentary man, living in structured settlements, who at the beginning of the Bronze Age had the ability to use this metal as a raw material for making weapons, tools, and objects for different purposes.
Nutrition of the Stone Age man:
The relatively small brain size of the early Stone Age man did not allow him to design tools and weapons and use them specifically for food procurement. The people of the Paleolithic were therefore primitive hunters and gatherers, with the term "primitive" refers to the fact that they did not cultivate crops, nor ran livestock. Therefore, the early Stone Age man went hunting for big game like the mammoth and collected fruits and berries. Over time, he increasingly acquired the ability to use stones as tools to break up and cut hard-shelled fruits and nuts or animal bones. The so-called "chopper"are considered the first stone tools that were purposefully used, and it is still unclear whether rubble has already been specifically processed or simply stones were selected that had sharp edges and certain shapes The earliest finds of such stones, the proven used for preparing food come from Ethiopia.
Another important achievement of the Stone People was the discovery of the fire, which enabled them to cook or roast foods, making them wholesome or digestible. At the same time, the fire made it possible to travel from Africa to cooler regions, to set up camps there, to orientate oneself in the dark and to gradually harden tools and weapons in the flames, which was of great importance for the hunting of animals. The ability to set fire to himself through the sparkle between rubbed stones and ores and the use of flammable materials has been perfected primarily by the Neanderthals and is considered an important foundation for the development of a modern human civilization.
Accommodation and way of life:
While Paleolithic man lived in temporary natural settings such as grottos, pits and caves in clans, a change in climate, flora and fauna, gradually led to his becoming more and more established as a local being. The warming in the Mesolithic brought the emergence of new forests and the associated colonization with new, compared to the dying mammoth significantly smaller species with it. The humans were now permanently in wooded areas and went with wood and stone-made weapons such as bow and arrow on the hunt for red deer, birds and wild boar or operated with spears targeted fishing.
Due to the locality of the hunting animals, humans gradually became sedentary in this phase of the warm and dry climate and founded larger settlements. In the period of the Mesolithic period, the first artistic representations in the form of small statuettes and patterned vessels, which show a much more complex creative occupation with different topics than the simple cave paintings of the Paleolithic period. With the settledness also rituals developed for the funeral of the dead, in whose burial mounds or grave buildings the archaeologists could already ensure various grave goods in the form of bones, plants and devices. However, it was not until the Neolithic period that a veritable revolution took place, which was accompanied by strong artistic skills, the construction of houses made of clay, wood or stone, and constantly improved techniques for hunting and fishing.
Also in terms of clothing, enormous progress was made during the Stone Age. While the early stone-age humans still wrapped themselves in simple animal skins to protect themselves from the cold, in the Neolithic they had already learned to consciously adapt their clothing to the environment and to make fabrics and thus garments by using woven frames made of different fibers. With the cultivation of grain and vegetable crops and field work, as well as the keeping of cattle, sheep and goats, humans were able to provide the necessary food at the end of the stone age through all seasons. This increasingly brought with it a sophisticated barter trade, which constantly expanded the cultural consciousness of the people and established a social network between individual tribes.