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other names: /
mineral class: Elements
chemical formula: C
Chemical elements: Carbon
Similar minerals: /
shine: Diamond shine
crystal structure: cubic
mass density: about 3.5
magnetism: not magnetic
Mohs hardness: 10
stroke color: White
use: Gemstone, industrial use
General information about the brilliant:
The word brilliant describes a diamond used as a gem, which receives its characteristic sparkling appearance through a special cut. The so-called brilliant cut can not only be applied to diamonds, but also gives other gems the coveted appearance. The correct name should actually be "diamond in brilliant cut". Since this gemstone is processed almost exclusively in this way, the name Brillant has prevailed in German-speaking countries. The name derives from the French adjective "brilliant", which translates to "glossy" or "radiant".
The diamond, which is cut in this special way and designated as diamond, is considered to be the hardest mineral ever, with a Mohs hardness of 10. Diamonds are one hundred percent crystallized carbon. They form cubic crystals with a perfect cleavage and a mussel to splintered break. Diamonds are basically colorless with a white stroke color. Due to the special cut, they sparkle as diamonds, however, with light incidence in many different colors. Diamonds are transparent and have the typical diamond shine.
Origin and occurrence:
Diamonds are formed in deep layers of the mantle under high pressure and at temperatures of up to 1400 degrees Celsius from mother rocks such as eclogite and peridodite. By eruptions they reach the earth's surface, where they are transported in extinct volcanoes. Diamonds are found in many countries around the world, but they must meet certain criteria for their use as gemstone in terms of their purity. For the processing in the jewelery industry and the production of diamonds mainly diamonds are used, which are promoted in the diamond mines of Africa. Especially in Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Africa, Botswana and Namibia there are economically significant deposits. In these politically unstable countries, there are always disputes over the exploitation of these precious raw materials. Other deposits are located in Russia and in parts of the Amazon that are still undeveloped, where illegal mines in nature reserves have been attracting many treasure hunters from all over the world for several decades.
The story of the brilliant:
It was not until the Middle Ages that people began to work on rough diamonds in order to increase their optical attractiveness as gemstones. First, only the eight natural surfaces of the crystals were smoothed and polished to give the stone a striking shine. The invention of the grinding wheel in the 15th century enabled more and more facets (surfaces) and produced different cuts. The round brilliant cut, which consists of a side view of the crown, a circular strip and the down-tapered pavilion and is made according to a fixed scheme of facets, was born only in 1910. He brought in the following decades, some variants, including the famous Tolkowsy brilliant cut out.