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How far does eardrum move?


Sound waves move human eardrum back and forth, like the peak to peak excursion of speaker driver, how much is it though? Ofcourse this movement depends on sound pressure, frequency and even location on eardrum, the edge moves less than center just like rubber surround around driver diaphragm.

I am interested in center of eardrum, the part of it that moves the furthest. The SPL is 100db at the eardrum and I would like to know how far it moves at 20 Hz and 20 KHz. I know this is hard question without specific answer becose every person have different eardrum but I believe there must be some rough average, some decent estimation about how much is it.

Is it micrometers? Is it nanometers? Or does it exceed 1 milimeter?


Tympanic displacement measurement (TMD) is a well studied field using hi-tech tools (i.e. stroboscopic holography), and complex units:
Vm = volume displacement in nl nanoLiters.
μm/pa (UDTF) = Linear tympanic membrane displacement is known as the umbo displacement transfer function.

The graph on the left gives you a value of 0.8-0.6 = 0.2 microns:

The graph above can be seen as resonances in an images sequence of stroboscopic holograms of tympanum (cool name to call your band) https://i.stack.imgur.com/fD6E9.jpg">https://i.stack.imgur.com/O7nQL.jpg">"eardrum response measurement" and "tympanic membrane displacement measurement"

Here is research comparing the eardrum to microphone design which is written easily.


Your eardrums move in sync with your eyes but we don’t know why

See, hear. Our eardrums appear to move to shift our hearing in the same direction as our eyes are looking. Why this happens is unclear, but it may help us work out which objects we see are responsible for the sounds we can hear.

Jennifer Groh at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, and her team have been using microphones inserted into people’s ears to study how their eardrums change during saccades – the movement that occurs when we shift visual focus from one place to another. You won’t notice it, but our eyes go through several saccades a second to take in our surroundings.

Examining 16 people, the team detected changes in ear canal pressure that were probably caused by middle-ear muscles tugging on the eardrum. These pressure changes indicate that when we look left, for example, the drum of our left ear gets pulled further into the ear and that of our right ear pushed out, before they both swing back and forth a few times.

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These changes to the eardrums began as early as 10 milliseconds before the eyes even started to move, and continued for a few tens of milliseconds after the eyes stopped.


HUMAN EAR: OUTER EAR, MIDDLE EAR, INNER EAR, HEARING

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Tympanic membrane

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Tympanic membrane, also called eardrum, thin layer of tissue in the human ear that receives sound vibrations from the outer air and transmits them to the auditory ossicles, which are tiny bones in the tympanic (middle-ear) cavity. It also serves as the lateral wall of the tympanic cavity, separating it from the external auditory canal. The membrane lies across the end of the external canal and looks like a flattened cone with its tip (apex) pointed inward. The edges are attached to a ring of bone, the tympanic annulus.

The drum membrane has three layers: the outer layer, continuous with the skin on the external canal the inner layer, continuous with the mucous membrane lining the middle ear and, between the two, a layer of radial and circular fibres that give the membrane its tension and stiffness. The membrane is well supplied with blood vessels, and its sensory nerve fibres make it extremely sensitive to pain.

Accurate diagnosis of middle-ear diseases depends on the appearance and mobility of the tympanic membrane, which is normally pearl gray but is sometimes tinged with pink or yellow. The condition that most commonly involves the tympanic membrane is otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear), which frequently affects children (particularly those between three months and three years of age) and typically is caused by bacterial infection. In severe otitis media, pressure from the accumulation of fluid in the middle ear can lead to tearing or rupturing of the tympanic membrane. Trauma, such as from a blow to the head or from water pressure, can also cause perforations in the membrane. Although tympanic membrane perforations often are self-healing, a patch or surgery may be needed to close the tear. Failure of the membrane to heal can result in varying degrees of hearing loss and increased susceptibility to otitis media and cholesteatoma (the formation of a cyst in the middle ear).


How far does eardrum move? - Biology

Doubtless, you will find it useful to have an otoscope available in your home. The best way to practice using your otoscope is with the help of an adult volunteer who has ear canals relatively free of ceruman (ear wax). To see the eardrum, grasp the outer ear. Gently pull backward and slightly upward on the ear (see ear picture below).

This will help to straighten the ear canal for the best "line of sight." Gently insert the otoscope while looking into its lens. You will begin to see when structures inside the ear come into focus. The focal length for optimal visualization of the eardrum varies upon the size of the ear canal. The length of the ear canal is variable in each and every person so it is important to watch closely through the lens while inserting the specula tip into the ear canal. This way you will know the instant your focal length is ideal and thus focus on the eardrum is at it&rsquos best. (Never pry or force the otoscope into the ear canal).

Most physicians and nurses will tell you the way they learned to do otoscope exams was by practicing on each other back in medical and nursing school. The same holds true in this case. Find some willing adults and start looking into ear canals. Soon you will recognize what is normal. After you mastered the adult exam then you can move on to children and infants. Be patient in the learning process. Included you will also find 3 sizes of specula. It is recommended to begin your exam in adults with the largest diameter specula and move downward in size if needed. In children begin with the smallest diameter specula and move up in size if able.

Ready To Purchase an Otoscope? Aussie Otoscope has a full range of Otoscopes for use by Professionals, Students and for those at home. Click below to see our range.

You should be aware that it is occasionally impossible to see the eardrum of a small child, or even that of a rare adult, even with the most expensive professional otoscopes. This is because the canal cannot be straightened sufficiently or it is occluded with ceruman (ear wax).

Usually, the view that is attainable is a function of ear canal size, and the presence of ceruman build-up. As a physician of many years experience, I assure you that virtually anything can be seen with our otoscopes that can be seen with the $400 wall mounted Welch Allyn model otoscopes that I use at work.

IMPORTANT: If you normally where glasses or contacts please leave them on while looking through your otoscope. We have had customers contact us saying that they could not see the eardrum because the instrument focused to close to the end of the specula. 98% of the time these were customers who were nearsighted and they had removed their glasses before looking into the lens of the otoscope. Occasionally we have had an issue with a defective lens. It is also important to not hold the otoscope too far away from your eye when looking into it.

If you are having any problem focusing on the eardrum here is a quick and easy way to test to see if the otoscope lens is functioning properly or if the problem is simply user error or an ear canal to difficult to see in to due to earwax, debris, or curvature.

Basically an otoscope is a magnifier and a light whose job it is to focus clearly at approximately 1/2 to 3/4 inch from the tip of the specula. The test below allows you to tell if the otoscope is doing its job correctly.

Using the otoscope to look at newsprint you can quickly tell if there is a possible lens defect causing things to not focus properly. The eardrum is normally around 1 inch away from the entrance to the outer ear in adults and ¾ inch away in small children. When you subtract out the ¼ inch you normally insert the otoscope speculum into the ear canal your focal point should be between ½ and ¾ inches away when you look at the eardrum with the otoscope. You can test if the otoscope is functioning properly by viewing print from a magazine or newspaper and measuring the approximate distance the otoscope tip is away from the print when everything is in clear focus. It should be somewhere between ½-3/4 inch away. The print should also be very clear and not distorted. Please let another member of your family complete the test as well and see if they get a similar result as your test. Please notify us immediately if it appears your otoscope has a lens defect or any other problem.

BOTTOM LINE: If the light is bright and the focus on the newsprint is clear at 1/2-3/4 inch from the tip of the specula then the reason you are not seeing the eardrum clearly while doing an exam is not the fault of the otoscope. There are other factors causing this (i.e. earwax, debris, or ear canal curvature). If the newsprint is blurry or the light dim then there is a defect in the otoscope.

Is it difficult for parents to learn to do ear exams?

This is one of those questions that has two answers. yes and no. The key to doing ear exams is practice. It is important to begin doing otoscope exams on a willing adult as opposed to a child. The ear canals are larger and the eardrum is easier to see in an adult. The key is to look into as many adult ear canals as possible to get a feel for what a normal eardrum looks like. When you visualize an eardrum that is red, has fluid behind it, or is simply abnormal you will quickly recognize this.

The old saying practice makes perfect could not apply more to any situation than it does to doing ear exams.

Always go slow and never ever force or pry the otoscope in an ear canal in any way shape or form. Always look to see what is in front of you through the viewing window of the otoscope before advancing it into an ear canal. Never push the specula tip into the ear canal unless you have a clear view that there is nothing in front of you. It is also a good idea to have someone stabilize the head of a small child or infant since they can and will often jerk their head or pull away when something strange is being inserted into their ear. Again much of this is good old common sense, always remember to go slow and never push or pry with the otoscope.

Realize that in some children and even adults it is impossible to see the eardrum. Some children and even adults have very small ear canals and/or also filled with earwax and debris which make it impossible to see the eardrum. Even as a physician it is impossible to see into some ears.

It is also advisable especially with pediatric exams to get the help of your local pediatrician. Many pediatricians today are very supportive of home ear exams and recognize the value of parents being able to monitor for the earliest signs of ear infection. Pediatricians also recognize the importance of the early recognition of earwax occlusions that can cause hearing loss. If not recognized early this hearing loss can go on to affect the speech development in young children.

Ready to Purchase an Otoscope for Use at Home? Click below to see our range of Otoscopes priced for those on the move and those at home.

Will Disposable Specula work with the Dr Mom Otoscopes?

Yes our otoscope works well with most major brands of disposable specula as well as the disposable specula we sell on our website. The key to using disposable specula is learning how they are placed on the otoscope. (Please see the illustration below.)

Using Disposable Specula: The disposable specula fit into the otoscope head, not over the non-disposable speculum that it ships with. The disposable specula fit VERY snugly into place, some people find it easier to put one side in and push the rest of it in next. You may find it easier to do this with the otoscope placed on a table with the hole the specula fits into facing you. There is a little ridge inside the otoscope head that the disposable specula slide up against when they are in place.

Using Disposable Specula: The disposable specula fit into the otoscope head, not over the non-disposable speculum that it ships with. The disposable specula fit VERY snugly into place, some people find it easier to put one side in and push the rest of it in next. You may find it easier to do this with the otoscope placed on a table with the hole the specula fits into facing you. There is a little ridge inside the otoscope head that the disposable specula slide up against when they are in place.

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How Teeth Move during Orthodontic Treatments

Many people who are knowledgeable about Invisalign will refer to the aligners used during treatment as Invisalign braces or invisible braces. Both ways of referring to the aligners are accurate because they’re from Invisalign and they’re a nearly invisible way to correct imperfect smiles. In fact, a strong case can be made that, compared to conventional braces, Invisalign aligners are as close to invisible as they can get.

Calling Invisalign aligners braces is also reasonable because they move teeth similarly to how conventional braces do. The goal of both traditional braces and Invisalign treatment is to move teeth into proper position over time, not overnight. While that’s the case, people who choose Invisalign can sometimes expedite their results by wearing their aligners for the recommended 22 hours per day . By comparison, people who opt for conventional braces are powerless to speed up their results.

Biology Basics

To understand how Invisalign aligners reposition teeth, it can be quite helpful to familiarize yourself with some biology basics. A periodontal ligament is what connects teeth to your jawbone. This ligament is made up of a group of fibers that contain collagen, which is a type of protein. The ligament’s fibers are what serve as an anchor that secures your teeth to the underlying bone.

The collagen fibers attach to root surfaces by depositing what’s appropriately referred to as cementum into living cells on one side of the bone. The fibers on the other side of your periodontal ligament insert themselves into your jawbone. In essence, your ligament’s fibers create a sling around your teeth that holds them in place while permitting limited movement as your teeth respond to the forces involved with biting.

Things Are Constantly Changing

While your smile may look the same every time you glance in the mirror, the truth is that it’s in constant flux despite its static appearance. To grasp this more easily, you may want to think of your teeth as a collective remodeling project that’s being worked on around the clock day-in and day-out.

While you may not be able to tell, your teeth are dynamic. They change because your periodontal ligament, cementum and jawbone react to changing pressures in your mouth. When you bite down, it causes tension and compression which are relayed to your ligament through its many protein fibers. Tension results in deposits of cementum being made in the bone. Compression, on the other hand, is the resorption or dissolution of bone and cementum. These oppositional things happen to maintain balance and keep your teeth in position.

Using Natural Processes to Relocate Teeth

Invisalign treatment works because it uses the natural processes that are already happening in your mouth. Invisalign aligners gently capture the forces of tension and compression and manipulate them to reposition teeth slowly and gently over time. The movement brought about by Invisalign clear aligners is preceded by resorption of the bone and cementum. The movement also follows the deposit of new bone.

In general, you’ll get a new set of Invisalign aligners every two weeks throughout the duration of your custom Invisalign treatment. Each new set of invisible braces you receive can move your teeth .25mm within the first three days you wear them. While that’s impressive, it’s important to understand that figure only represents the movement of your periodontal ligament in most cases. It doesn’t account for the movement of bone.

You bone must move for the repositioning of your teeth to last because your bone is what will hold your teeth in their new position. Because it can take up to two weeks for your ligament’s fibers to apply enough cementum to attach to your bone in a new position, patients typically have to wear each set of Invisalign aligners for two weeks.

As you probably guessed, the new position your teeth occupy can be difficult to maintain. If you don’t wear your Invisalign braces for the required length of time each day, it greatly increases the chances that you’ll experience a relapse or reverse movement of your teeth. If that happens, it can prolong the length of your Invisalign treatment and postpone the much-anticipated debut of your best smile.

For your Invisalign treatment to be as effective as possible and for each set of aligners to do its job, it’s crucial for you to wear your Invisalign clear aligners for the length of time your orthodontist or dentist recommends. As a general rule, that will be 20 – 22 hours every day. To play it safe, it’s usually wise to only remove your aligners when you eat, brush, floss and clean your aligners, but to leave them in the rest of the time.


How Long Do Ear Infections Last (middle ear)?

Severe symptoms usually last for less then one to two days. If such symptoms last longer than one to two days, then it is important to consult with a doctor. If symptoms do not go away and are left untreated, they can lead to complications and in rare cases more serious health issues

After an ear infection clears up, fluid may remain in the middle ear and cause some of the more mild symptoms and can persist for several weeks to months. This condition is diagnosed as otitis media with effusion.


What Causes Clicking in Ear

  • Perforated Eardrum: Perforated eardrum can lead to clicking within an ear. As you know, no pressure can build up in a balloon if there is a hole, a perforated eardrum will not be able to balance the pressure. If the pressure difference is severe, thе perforated eardrum bulges to the point it can pop like a balloon. Bу popping the ears, the pressure difference will be minimized.
  • Enlarged Adenoids: Whether it is clicking іn right ear or left ear, you will have to check what causes the Eustachian tube to not open up properly. If the tube is physically blocked towards the opening of the tube in the nose, it must be probably due to large adenoids. In rare cases, the opening of the tube in the nose si blocked due to a tumor.Endoscopy helps detect the exact causes.
  • Common Cold: Thе Eustachian tube does not open properly due to inflammatory conditions, especially due tо cold, sinus problems and allergies which lead to an inflamed and swollen Eustachian tube. This is known as Eustachian tube dysfunction. This can create a problem like ‘clicking sound in ear’.
  • Wrong Diet: Excessive consumption of red wine, cheese, chocolates can lead tо ringing ears. Avoiding excessive intake of coffee, aspirin, spirits made from grain and foods rich in salicylates can help prevent such problems.
  • Structural Problems: People who mainly suffer from constant negative ear pressure, are at risk of developing fluid in the middle ear which may lead to middle ear infection, clicking sound and hearing loss.
  • Muscle Spasms: Spasms of the muscles of the soft palate make them extend towards the ear. Spasms of muscles in the middle or inner ear can create a clicking sound in the ear.
  • Accumulation оf Earwax: If earwax is nit removed properly and regularly, it can block the sounds from reaching the brain, resulting in clicking within an ear.
  • Dental Procedure: Vascular abnormalities and the strain on the temporomandibular joint during a dental procedure can result in clicking in ear.
  • Noise Pollution: Exposure to loud music and noises can lead to a clicking sound in an ear.
  • Excessive Stress: Constant and excessive stress can be the cause of this condition.
  • Medications: Some medications may lead to the inflammation of the Eustachian tube, resulting in abnormal sounds in the ears.
  • Brain Injuries: Brain injuries or brain tumors can cause clicking sounds.
  • Diseases: Many diseases like Meniere’s disease, abnormal blood pressure, fibromyalgia, diseases of the heart or blood vessels, thyroid problems, abnormal interactions between neural circuits, etc., could be the cause.
  • Bad Habits: Excessive consumption оf tobacco and alcohol can lead to ringing in the ears.

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  • Clicking noises in the ear or symptoms of ear fullness are observed when the Eustachian tube does not open up easily, resulting in an inability to pop the ears easily. In severe cases, persistent ear pain is also observed. Ear fullness is noticed if there is a pressure difference between the air pressure in the middle ear and the pressure outside the eardrum. Due to the pressure difference, the eardrum еeither bulges outward (positive pressure) or bulges inward (negative pressure). Basically, an inwardly or outwardly bulged eardrum can create a sensation of fullness for the person.
  • Eardrum Bulges Inward: The ear canal is open to the outside. If the outside pressure іѕ greater than the pressure in the middle ear space, the eardrum bulges inward. You may have experienced this as it occurs when a plane is landing or if you dive deep into water…. This is just a natural reflex. The eardrum bulges inward until the pressure outside and inside the ear is equal. If the outside pressure is 30 and inside pressure is 10, then the eardrum wіll bulge inward, until the inside pressure is 30.
  • Eardrum Bulges Outward: If the outside pressure is less than the pressure in the middle ear space, the eardrum bulges outward. You may have experienced this during take-off or while driving up a huge mountain. This situation is exactly opposite of the above. If the middle ear pressure is 30 which is more than the outside pressure, which is 10, then the eardrum bulges outward until the pressure inside and outside matches at 10.

Thе person suffering from tinnitus may have to undergo several tests. He should provide detailed information about his health and medicines to his doctor for a proper diagnosis. Thе doctor wіll have to find out the exact underlying cause of tinnitus and plan the treatment accordingly. If earwax has blocked the ear canal, it will be removed with the help of advanced techniques and instruments. Sometimes small electronic devices commonly known as a masker that produce a soft, pleasant sound are fitted in the ear to disguise the sounds. A cochlear implant is recommended in case of severe hearing loss. Bypassing the damaged portion of the inner ear, it transmits electrical signals to the auditory nerve. After reading the causes оf clicking in ear, you will understand that the treatment for this infliction will vary according to the causes, symptoms and severity of the condition.

The Tinnitus Miracle is a holistic approach to completely and permanently eliminating the clicking, ringing and other sounds associated with Tinnitus. After thousands of hours of clinical research Thomas Coleman has put together a 5 step program to access the cause and safely eliminate the effects, without medication, surgery or any side effects. This system has been used successfully by more than 200,000 sufferers, including myself, in more than 135 countries. The Tinnitus Miracle works and is highly recommended worldwide. You can get more details by clicking the link below. The program comes with a 30 day money back guarantee which is plenty of time to completely eliminate the symptoms of tinnitus.

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Earwax color chart: What to know

Earwax, or cerumen, is a natural substance that the ears produce to help protect the ear canal and eardrum.

Earwax plays essential roles in ear health. It helps remove debris from the ear canal, prevents foreign bodies and particles from penetrating deep into the ear, and it even helps protect against germs.

The ears are also relatively self-regulating. Thanks to the motion of talking and chewing, as well as the shape of the ear itself, earwax naturally moves up and out of the ear.

Old earwax eventually moves out of the ear canal and falls out naturally, taking any debris and dead skin cells along with it.

In this article, learn what different colors and textures of earwax indicate, as well as how to safely clean out the ear.

Earwax can be a variety of colors, including:

  • off white
  • yellow
  • bright orange
  • dark orange
  • brown
  • black


Earwax is most often amber orange to light brown, wet, and sticky. For some people, it is drier and lighter in color, closer to off white or yellow.

In general, the color has a bit to do with the age of the earwax. Newer earwax tends to be lighter in color, and it darkens as it ages and picks up more debris.

The color, texture, and amount of earwax vary naturally from person to person. For most people who produce a regular amount of earwax, the ears can easily remove the wax on their own. This happens at varying speeds, often leading to different textures of earwax.

However, some people produce more wax than is common, or the ears may produce more wax when a person is very stressed. When this happens, the ears may not be able to get rid of the wax fast enough, and blockages can occur.

Blockages in the ear can change the color and texture of the wax. If the person cannot remove the wax, the ear canal may become fully blocked, which could impair hearing and increase the risk of infection.

Infections and injuries can cause discharge from the ear that may be:

The texture of earwax changes as the wax ages. Also, genetics and a person’s age may play roles.

An older study, from 2006 , has linked people of East Asian descent to earwax that is typically dry and flaky.

Also, children tend to have softer earwax that is lighter in color, while adults tend to have darker, harder earwax.

While varying shades and textures of earwax can come from healthy ears, there are still some instances in which a person should see a doctor.

Anyone experiencing discharge from the ear that is not earwax should consult a doctor, as this could be a sign of an ear infection.

Also, see a doctor if there is blood in earwax. Additionally, anyone who is prone to buildups of earwax should consult a doctor at the first sign of a blockage, such as muffled hearing.

Some people are more likely to produce an excess of earwax, including people who:

  • have very high-stress lifestyles
  • have chronic ear infections
  • are older
  • have a lot of hair in their ears
  • have a deformation in their ear canals

These people have a risk of blockages and buildups of earwax. If they experience any symptoms, such as muffled hearing, they should see their doctors to discuss how to safely eliminate the wax from their ears.

The number one rule for taking care of the ears is to simply leave them alone. Do not insert anything into the ear canal to try to remove earwax, including fingers, cotton swabs, or any pointy tool or instrument.

Putting anything into the ear canal only increases the risk of pushing wax deeper in, where it may get stuck and cause blockages.

Also, avoid using ear candles, which involves inserting a waxed tube into the ear and lighting it on fire. Some practitioners claim that this helps remove wax and reduce other symptoms of ear issues, but no scientific evidence supports this claim.

Authors of an editorial published by the American Academy of Audiology warn that even when a person uses an ear candle correctly, it can cause serious injuries, including burns. The authors also note that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have issued advisory notices and taken other steps to prevent the use of these tools.

To safely clean the ears, gently wash the outer ears with mild soap and water. Let this rinse into the ear canal to clear away any wax that has fallen away from the walls of the canal. It is safe to rinse this wax away because it has performed its function.

Wipe away any excess moisture or external wax with a towel. For most people, this is all the cleaning that their ears need.

If the ears are producing too much wax, earwax thinning drops are the only safe way to help wax leave the ear canal at home.

A person inserts a few drops of medicated liquid into the ear canal and lets the liquid sit for a couple of days to break up extra earwax. Earwax drops often contain hydrogen peroxide or glycerin.

After a few days, the person adds warm water to a silicone syringe and gently sprays it into their ear for irrigation, tilting their head to let the liquid drain out.

If this does not work, see a doctor to discuss options for removing the blockage.

Anyone who has an eardrum perforation or an eardrum tube should not use the drops or irrigation. Consult a doctor about alternatives.

A range of ear irrigation kits is available online or in stores. Follow the specific instructions in each kit to ensure ear safety.


How far does eardrum move? - Biology

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Sound is collected by the pinna (the visible part of the ear) and directed through the outer ear canal. The sound makes the eardrum vibrate, which in turn causes a series of three tiny bones (the hammer, the anvil, and the stirrup) in the middle ear to vibrate. The vibration is transferred to the snail-shaped cochlea in the inner ear the cochlea is lined with sensitive hairs which trigger the generation of nerve signals that are sent to the brain.

On average, people can hear sounds in the frequencies between 20 to 20,000 Hertz.