other names: /
mineral class: ?
chemical formula: SiO2 + various elements (including Al, B, Ba, Ca, Na, K)
Chemical elements: Silicon, oxygen
Similar minerals: Rhyolite
colour: white, gray, brown, yellow, red, black
crystal structure: /
mass density: approx. 2.6
magnetism: weak magnetic
Mohs hardness: 6
stroke color: ?
use: Building material
General information about the granite:
granite describes one of the oldest crystalline mass rocks and developed deep in the earth's crust during prehistoric times. The rock consists mainly of dark minerals with high magnesium and iron content as well as quartz, mica and othoclasic feldspar. The name derives from the Latin word "granum" which means "grain" and refers to the coarse-grained appearance. Granite stands out for its uniform appearance, which is made up of single crystals of a few centimeters in size. Granites may appear whitish, grayish, bluish, brown, yellow or reddish depending on environmental influences and mineral composition. The mica is responsible for the black and silvery color components in the granite. The quartz components provide due to their bright color and the translucent optics for the gray appearance of the granite. Depending on the appearance and coloring, a distinction is made in the economically important species between the white, the graphic and porphyric granite, and the hornblende and rose granite.
Origin and occurrence:
Granite is one of the plutons, that is to say, those rocks that are formed and crystallized by a slow solidification of magma deep in the earth's crust. By resting heavy rock plates on the surface of the earth, the magma is forced to cool down and solidify. The coarse grain of the granite results from the different melting points of the individual mineral components that make up the rock. Only when overlying layers weather or be removed, the huge granite complexes come to light.
Almost half of the plutonic rocks that make up the continents are made of granite. Thus, this is considered one of the most widely used rock types ever. Correspondingly, granite is mined in huge quarries on almost every continent in the world. The most important localities include Canada with the Rocky Mountains, the United States with the Appalachian Mountains, France with the Vosges Mountains, the Alps in Austria, Switzerland and France, the Ural Mountains in Russia, the Himalayas and quarries in Finland, Sweden and Norway. In Germany, there are important funding agencies in the Erzgebirge, in the Harz, in the Fichtelgebirge, in the Bavarian Forest and in the Black Forest.
Properties and use of granite:
Granite is considered one of the most durable materials ever. Because it is extremely weather-, acid- and salt-resistant, granite is a natural stone versatile use in outdoor and indoor use. In antiquity, huge sculptures were made of granite, which survived almost unscathed until today. Above all, the reddish-colored rose granite was already used extensively in the production of illustrations of important pharaohs and gods by the ancient Egyptians. In addition to its high weather resistance, granite is characterized by its excellent polishability, which makes it a sought-after material for the construction of buildings, decorative objects in gardens and the production of shiny facade cladding, monuments and tombstones. At the same time, granite also plays an important role in interior design, as stairs, floors and wall coverings are often made of this robust material, especially in public buildings. For some years, granite flooring and kitchen worktops have become increasingly popular in private urban loft-style homes.